Rituals), a golden tripod incense burner (tib spos phor), at the bottom centre of the painting stands a small flowers in a vase, and a line of seven small water bowls table with shrine offerings, including torma (tib gtor ma on the left side of the offering table, a monk kneels on a the second buddha and arhats. In tibet, the sixteen arhats, also known as sixteen sthaviras ('elders') are the subject of a liturgical practice associated with the festival of the buddha's birth, composed by the kashmiri teacher shakyahribhadra (1127-1225)[3. The full group of arhats always has twenty-five figures: the buddha shakyamuni, together with the two foremost disciples - shariputra and maudgalyayana, the sixteen arhats, the attendant dharmata, the patron hvashang and the four guardians of the directions vaishravana, virupaksha, dhritarashtra and virudhaka.
Jeff watts' notes at tibet art tell us that the sadhana or ritual service and offerings to buddha shakyamuni with the 16 arhats was made popular by atisha (982-1054) and the shakya pandita, shribhadra (1127-1225. The sixteen arhats are traditionally worshipped for they are said to have renounced nirvana out of compassion to help relieve human suffering on earth their sanskrit names are: pindola bharadvaja, ajita, subinda, kalika, vajraputra, bhadra, kanakavatsa, kanaka bhadra, nakula (or vakula), rahula, chudapanthaka, angaja.
The beginnings of the depiction of the sixteen arhats named in the record of the abiding law are obscure the available visual evidence consists of mere fragments or later copies of paintings. Arhats are typically illustrated in a group of sixteen and, much like the depiction of daoist immortals, they are personalized with particular iconographic traits, such as oddly shaped heads, which symbolize their wisdom. In china, the eighteen arhats are also a popular subject in buddhist art, such as the famous chinese group of glazed pottery luohans from yixian of about 1000 in china ink rubbing of the stele commissioned by qianlong depicting asita.
Chinese buddhism and other east asian traditions have historically accepted this perspective, and specific groups of arhats are venerated as well, such as the sixteen arhats, the eighteen arhats, and the five hundred arhats. Pantaka is one of the sixteen arhats, the original disciples of the buddha the arhat painting genre found in tibet was adopted from china and carried with it many aspects of chinese visual culture. The names and abodes of these 16 arhats are given in a work entitled record on the duration of the law, spoken by the great arhat nadimitra, which was translated into chinese by the famous pilgrim xuanzang (596-664) in 654 16 lohans are quite often represented, especially in china and japan, in sculpture and painting, in poses and with.
The sixteen arhats are first individually named and discussed in detail in a text translated by the monk xuanzang in ad 654, the d a a lzlohan nandimidzlolzlo szlo shzlo fazhzl ji, or the record on the y the great arhat nandimitra (best known by its shorter chinese duration of the dharma as explained b title, the fazhzl ji)j it appears that. His depiction of the arhats exhibit an exaggeration of features that borders on perversity, this style is typically chan the paintings display an emphasis on the arhat's skeletal bodies, and bony faces, as well as the incredible age of the sages. These paintings, formerly in shôjuraigô-ji temple in otsu, shiga prefecture, are the oldest existing set of the sixteen arhats unlike the bizarre appearance of many arhat representations, they are here portrayed with gentle countenance, derived from early buddhist iconography of the tang dynasty (618-c 907. There's a painting of 69 arhats and a painting of 100 arhats and then there's also a 300-foot-long painting called the 500 arhats, which kicked it all off murakami: the 500 arhats painting is huge.
Abheda is one of the sixteen arhats, the original disciples of the buddha his identifying attribute is a stupa, which he holds in both hands typically the arhats are depicted as a group, so this painting is likely part of a larger set of up to twenty-three paintings. Arhats, worshipers, divine beings, demons, and animals are arranged in diverse compositions and painted with a multitude of colors in the upper part of each painting is a square area that notes the name and abode of each arhat. Below this heavenly triad are sixteen arhats (japanese: rakan), enlightened, ascetic followers of the buddha, who engage in a variety of activities in a landscape of jagged rocks, caverns, and rushing waterfalls.